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  • Carmalan Robotics | Robotics Design & Tutorials

    About Us Carmalan Robotics is a new electronics hobby site focused on the design, repair, and restoration of robotic systems. This site offers interactive tutorials, projects, and guides aimed at beginners to learn complex topics in an easy and understandable way. ​ Check out the coming-up robot builds and repair guides to learn more about how robots work and how you can test, diagnose, and resolve issues yourselves. Coming Soon Recent Projects Braava 250 Repair Repairing a water spraying issue on an IRobot Braava Jet 250 home robotic mop. Coming Soon Site Chapters Motherboard Motherboard 1/1 Electronics Tutorials Want to learn electronics? ​ Why not check out our beginner to advanced electronics tutorials covering various topics, including: Logic Design Basic Robotics Electronics Essentials Coming Soon Programming Console Programming Console 1/1 Programming Tutorials Want to learn to code? ​ Try out our tutorials, guides, tips and tricks for a range of programming languages and applications, including: Vintage Computer Languages Programming for Computers Programming for Robotics Coming Soon IMG_7050 IMG_7050 1/1 Robotics Repair Check our pages for robotic system repair and restoration. ​ These pages include: Basic Repairs Advanced Repairs Stripdowns Modifications Coming Soon IMG_7230 IMG_7229 IMG_7231 IMG_7230 1/3 Robot Development Check our pages for robotic system repair and restoration. ​ These pages include: Basic Repairs Advanced Repairs Stripdowns Modifications Coming Soon IMG_7089 IMG_7089 1/1 Robot Teardown Check our pages for robotic system repair and restoration. ​ These pages include: Basic Repairs Advanced Repairs Stripdowns Modifications Coming Soon

  • Gradient Decent | Carmalan Robotics

    Gradient Decent The Practical Way In this chapter, we will be exploring the concept of potential dividers, and how to calculate and utilize them in everyday circuits. Overview 1 - What is Gradient Decent? Machine learning is the autonomous process in which a machine can improve its accuracy when attempting to accomplish a task. The aim is for the device to "learn" for itself rather than a programmer providing a step-by-step solution. This is additioanly usefull when solving a problem with no clear answer. ​ For example, how would you teach a robot to tell the difference between an image of a cat and a dog? Would you say that dogs have long ears and cats have round faces? Unfortunately, clear, simple rules such as this do not always work. Even for a simple problem that a person can solve at a mere glance, what may be easy for us can be exceptionally difficult for a robot and even more impossible to explain. ​ A potential method would be to analyse thousands of examples of both categories, developing rules and uncovering patterns on a more microscopic level, to formulate a generalised solution to this problem. Then, given a model with a suitable architecture, the more and slightly varying the images we provide the system, the more accurate its prediction should be. ​ Gradient Descent is one of these methods for optimising an AI model. It involves making incremental changes to improve the model's accuracy, calculated to reflect the model's error. In the circuit above, two resistors are used to output a potential difference, based on the ratio of these resistors. 2 - The Problem One of the simplest problems we can apply gradient descent to is fitting a straight line to some sample data. The goal for the following linear regression problem is to adjust the properties of the line so that its value best " fits" the data, resulting in a line of best fit. The equation of this line represents some moch linear relationships between two variables. 2 - The Approuch To initiate the repair, we first need to strip down the robot to expose the error, as the basic checks show the fault lies within the robot. Below is a picture of the top face of the robot in question. 2 - Gradient Test To initiate the repair, we first need to strip down the robot to expose the error, as the basic checks show the fault lies within the robot. Below is a picture of the top face of the robot in question. 3 - How D o They Work? To initiate the repair, we first need to strip down the robot to expose the error, as the basic checks show the fault lies within the robot. Below is a picture of the top face of the robot in question. Potential Divider - Lab 1 - What are potential dividers? To initiate the repair, we first need to strip down the robot to expose the error, as the basic checks show the fault lies within the robot. Below is a picture of the top face of the robot in question. Calculate Potential Divider - Summary 1 - What are potential dividers? To initiate the repair, we first need to strip down the robot to expose the error, as the basic checks show the fault lies within the robot. Below is a picture of the top face of the robot in question. Button Chapter Quiz ​ Using your newly gained wisdom of potential dividers, attempt to solve the provided quiz question bellow. Answer = +2v Answer = +2.5V Answer = +5V

  • Projects | Carmalan Robotics

    Projects Project Name This is your Project description. Provide a brief summary to help visitors understand the context and background of your work. Click on "Edit Text" or double click on the text box to start. Project Name This is your Project description. A brief summary can help visitors understand the context of your work. Click on "Edit Text" or double click on the text box to start. Project Name This is your Project description. Provide a brief summary to help visitors understand the context and background of your work. Click on "Edit Text" or double click on the text box to start. Project Name This is your Project description. Click on "Edit Text" or double click on the text box to start. Project Name This is your Project description. Provide a brief summary to help visitors understand the context and background of your work. Click on "Edit Text" or double click on the text box to start. Project Name This is your Project description. A brief summary can help visitors understand the context of your work. Click on "Edit Text" or double click on the text box to start.

  • Contact | Carmalan Robotics

    CONTACT Contact us with any queries by filling in the form below. First Name Last Name Email Subject Leave us a message... Submit Thanks for submitting!

  • Roomba 521 - Error 3 Repair | Carmalan Robotics

    Introduction Roo mba 521 Batte ry Error 3 Repair In this project, the dreaded “Battery Error 3” charging error was tackled on an old Roomba 521 vacuum robot. This error can be found in older models of Roomba robots and is often referred to as the “Red Ring of Death” for robot vacuums. Page Chapters Click on the images to redirect to the corresponding chapter. The Inspection Initial inspection checks. Top-Case Teardown Step-by-step case removal. Motherboard Removal Removing the main board. Under The Microscope A closer look at the damage. The Repair Performing the repair. Putting It To The Test Testing the repairs. In this project, the dreaded “Battery Error 3” charging error was tackled on an old Roomba 521 vacuum robot. This error can be found in older models of Roomba robots and is often referred to as the “Red Ring of Death” for robot vacuums. Symptoms The vocal message “Charging Error 3” when attempting to charge the robot through the docking station or by direct connection. A red ring appears when attempting to charge the device. The battery does not recharge regardless of how long plugged in. The battery re-learn feature cancels, reporting the error. Quick Fix’s There are many reasons why an error may occur when charging your robot, from a bad battery, or a loose connection, all the way to a bad motherboard. Below are some initial tips to attempt to remedy the issue. Wipe clean the connections on the charging dock Plug the charger directly into the robot Clean the connections to the battery itself Try another battery (if one is spare) Try a battery reset (Hold down “Dock” and “Spot” buttons for 10-20 seconds and let go - the robot should make a tone) which will let the robot re-learn the battery's charging and running characteristics. The Investigation The Investigation 1 - Ov er v i ew To initiate the repair, we first need to strip down the robot to expose the error, as the basic checks show the fault lies within the robot. Below is a picture of the top face of the robot in question. This robot is a standard Roomba 521 model designed for home use, compatible with most floor types, including tiles, carpet and hardwood. To start the repair, we need to turn the robot over, exposing the bottom side of the robot in order to access the case screws. Taking a closer look, the exact model number can be revealed. 2. Backplate Teardown The backplate contains the battery and battery connections, which are the first point of internal inspection for this error. The first step is to remove the side brush, as it will prevent the separation of the backplate. This brush rotates in normal use allowing for debris to be collected within reach of the main vacuum rollers beneath. This component can be undone by removing the single screw in the centre. To keep things safe, I often refit the screw into the motor so that it will not become lost. With that task completed, the highlighted screws can now be undone. These screws are typically captive screws , which do not fully remove from the outside cover when loose. This is beneficial for often removed access panels, as it reduces the risk of a vital case screw becoming lost. Once undone, the backplate can be lifted off the body to expose the battery compartment and other components. 3. Battery Inspection As this is an error related to charging, the next step is to investigate the connections to the battery, which for this fault, may have corrosion. To remove the battery, simply pull on the two green tabs to lift it evenly from the compartment. With the battery out, the area surrounding the connections can be examined for any potential damage. ​ It can be seen that the left topmost terminal is exhibiting signs of corrosion (green furr), which may very likely be the cause of such an issue. Below is an image taking a closer look. Examining the battery itself, there is no sign of leakage or corrosion. With a fault such as this, it is typically due to the motherboard being exposed to moister such as a spilt drink on the robot, damp storage conditions or cleaning with too wet of a cloth. Corrosion can cause damaged, shorted, or broken connections which will prevent the robot from accurately measuring the charging of the battery, leading the robot to shut down the charging circuit to prevent further damage. This means to correct the issue properly, we will have to closely inspect the motherboard, remove all the corrosion, and repair any damage present. Top-Case Teardown Top-Case Teardown 4. Top-C ase Teardown The motherboard is on the top side of the robot, under the face plate. But first, we have to remove the body panels that restrict access to the screws and the components that block the removal of these panels. The first component to remove is the front bumper plastic. A thin plastic strip helps retain the outer bumper shell to the robot body. To remove the strip, un-do the following highlighted screws. BEWARE! These screws are not captive and will have to be stored safely (such as in a baggie or a part sorter compartment). Tip: Make sure to keep note of what screws went where as you progress through the teardown, as not all screws are guaranteed to be of the same dimensions. Additionally, recording what sizes the screws are will help you find replacements later on if some were already missing. Below is an image of the screw size removed at this step. For this model of robot, a quantity of 10 screws is expected. With the screws undone, the plastic strip should easily lift away. Carefully turning the robot on the other side, the bumper cover should slide off upwards. BEWARE! The top IR sensor for docking and virtual wall detection will still be connected to the motherboard by a thin cable. Take care when removing the bumper, not to damage the cable or connector, as the cable plug may not be easily accessible at this time to unplug. The back bumper is far easier to remove, with only needing to press the button at the rear. This will allow the wastebasket, with an internal suction fan, to effortlessly slide out. The last step before removing the top case cover is taking off the face plate. The face plate is a replaceable cosmetic panel that shields various access ports and case screws. This facia is held in place by clips. BEWARE! These clips can become brittle with age, so take great care when prying the panel loose. Cold plastic clips can also be more likely to break. Robots previously stored in a cold garage, left to match the temperature of a normally warmed room, may be less likely to result in broken housing clips. To release the clips, gently pull the plastic around each clip one at a time, unclipping them from the body. Repeat this process around the face plate until the place becomes free. On this robot, there is no indented tab that can be pushed to release the clips, as common on some other types of devices. With the face plate detached, the remainder of the case screws are revealed, along with the communication port on the right-hand side. The next step is to remove the following highlighted screws. These are the first ring of screws that hold the top section of the case to the bottom section. Below is an image of the screws removed from this section, of which 6 should be expected. Next, the inner ring of screws need to be undone. Below is an image of the screws removed from this section, of which 4 should be expected. Below this ring is an additional single screw of a different size, as highlighted below. The following image shows the size of the sole screw expected in this step The final screws of this stage are the two below the handle. These screws do not pass through to the body underneath and are not required to be removed. However, they are shown below for future reference. The following image shows the size of these two screws. With all the mentioned screws extracted, the top cover should now be withdrawable from the robot's base, exposing the main circuit board (motherboard) below. The wastebasket can be re-fit if desired, as it may help keep the robot level when performing repairs. Motherboard Removal Motherboard Removal 5. Motherboard removal BEWARE! With the motherboard now exposed, it may be at risk of Electro Static Discharge damage. Wearing an ESD strap, as shown below, is recommended, so static energy from your body can be dissipated to ground and not damage your robot. With the top case detached, the plug for the bumper sensor is now accessible. Gently pull on the connector (ideally not on the wires themselves) to disconnect the plug from the socket. Tip: The placement of sockets and the colours of wires can differentiate between different models of devices. It is recommended to take pictures of each plug before disconnecting to ensure that the correct sockets are reconnected later. Additionally, if a wire became loose on a plug, it may help refit that pin in the correct location later. With the bumper fully separated, the front bumper sensors can now be seen. Tip: If the robot's bumper has lost its bounce, or the robot appears to occasionally “bump” into objects that do not exist, slightly bending the large metal tabs shown above forwards may help. These tabs act as springs on this version of the bumper and can become slightly compressed over time from continuous bumping. Pulling the spring tabs slightly further out will put increased pressure on the bumper plastic, allowing the bumper to be properly extended and not misread. Tip: Cleaning the IR LED sensors on the inner bumper will aid in properly detecting objects. The front IR sensors are used to detect upcoming objects so the robot can slow down before hitting them. If these sensors are covered in dust, they may not properly work in operation and cause a symptom of the robot heavily hitting objects. The IR sensors below can also be cleaned to ensure that “cliffs” or other large drops can be properly detected. A plastic sheet may be present to protect the top of the motherboard. To remove this sheet, undo the screw internal to the small plastic pillar, as shown below. Below shows the length of this pillar and the corresponding screw. Now you should be left with a fully revealed motherboard. Before the motherboard can be withdrawn, a few remaining steps need to be followed. First, unplug the robot's speaker cable. This is the speaker that produces the speech and tones. Secondly, remove the charging cable (left) and suction fan cable (right), as shown below. Next, there are 5 retaining screws for the motherboard to be undone, as highlighted below. The size of the screw for this step is shown below. The motherboard should now be loose and can be lifted from the body. BEWARE! The cables below are still connected, so take care not to damage the wires. Additionally, the drive motors have inserted sockets on either side, so lift gently and evenly up to not break these connections. The last step is to unplug the remainder of the plugs from the underside of the motherboard. These plugs are primarily for sensors. Connections to the drive motors should be as small PCB boards inserted into the motherboard sockets, and the connection to the side brush may also be springs, similar to the battery connection. Additionally, if any of the motors appear to work intermittently, carefully wipe clean the connectors to ensure no dirt is preventing a reliable connection. Cautiously unplug each cable one at a time. On this model, each plug should be of a different size, but taking images of each and their corresponding wire colours will prevent any confusion when reconnecting later. With this done, the motherboard should be removed, leaving only another plastic sheet and a metal tray underneath. More Coming Soon Page Chapters Introduction Motherboard Removal Top-Case Teardown The Investigation

  • Tutorial Page Test | Carmalan Robotics

    Resistors for Beginners Potential Dividers In this chapter, we will be exploring the concept of potential dividers, and how to calculate and utilize them in everyday circuits. Potential Divider Basics 1 - What are potential dividers? A potential divider is a circuit that utilises resistors to reduce a supplied voltage. The output voltage of the circuit is a fraction of the supplied voltage, determined by the values of the resistors in the circuit. In the circuit above, two resistors are used to output a potential difference, based on the ratio of these resistors. 2 - How Are They Used? To initiate the repair, we first need to strip down the robot to expose the error, as the basic checks show the fault lies within the robot. Below is a picture of the top face of the robot in question. 3 - How D o They Work? To initiate the repair, we first need to strip down the robot to expose the error, as the basic checks show the fault lies within the robot. Below is a picture of the top face of the robot in question. Potential Divider - Lab 1 - What are potential dividers? To initiate the repair, we first need to strip down the robot to expose the error, as the basic checks show the fault lies within the robot. Below is a picture of the top face of the robot in question. Calculate Potential Divider - Summary 1 - What are potential dividers? To initiate the repair, we first need to strip down the robot to expose the error, as the basic checks show the fault lies within the robot. Below is a picture of the top face of the robot in question. Button Chapter Quiz ​ Using your newly gained wisdom of potential dividers, attempt to solve the provided quiz question bellow. Answer = +2v Answer = +2.5V Answer = +5V

  • Swarm Robotics in Disaster Response | Carmalan Robotics

    Swarm Robo tics Intervention within Disaster Response Re visiting my Bachelors year thesis project In this article, we revisit my univeristy bachelours project "Integrating Object Recognition in Swarm Robotics Management" of 2022. I'm a Service Name Use this area to describe one of your services. You can change the title to the service you provide and use this text area to describe your service. I'm a Service Name Use this area to describe one of your services. You can change the title to the service you provide and use this text area to describe your service. I'm a Service Name Use this area to describe one of your services. You can change the title to the service you provide and use this text area to describe your service. In a world with so many prominent large-scale disasters, I envisioned a world where such scenarios could be resolved without adding risk to any subsequent human life. This concept is what I sought to explore during my Computer Systems Engineering bachelor's thesis back in 2022. ​ Introductio n 1 - The Concept My project, "Integrating Object Recognition in Swarm Robotics Management", aimed to create a proof-of-concept system designed to perform cleanup operations within a disaster scenario using cheep, simplistic, and autonomous robots. ​ Within disaster scenarios, vast varieties of time-critical hazards must be resolved. Unfortunately, sending in human responders to save already exposed civilians puts the responders themselves in danger, with possibly fatal ramifications. Considering the existing use of robotics in hazardous situations (e.g. bomb disposal, mineshaft exploration, extraterrestrial planet surveys and space exploration), could we further expand autonomous robotics within this domain, limiting the need for on-site personnel? Or even limit human intervention altogether? ​ My initial investigation showed that existing radio-controlled systems, such as those previously used in Chernobyl, required on-site operators. However, just as back then, putting a competent computer system intelligent enough to perform tasks to the level required did not seem possible. This suggested that another approach, cheaper, whilst also resilient to danger, needed to be explored. But how can we give the robots the benefits that come with AI without actually giving the robots themselves AI? A tricky question at the start, but what if the AI did not have to reside entirely within each individual robot intended to be used? That would certainly reduce each robot's computing overhead and, therefore, the per unit hardware implementation costs. ​ More Coming Soon

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  • TEMPLATE DO NOT REMOVE | Carmalan Robotics

    Roo mba 521 Batte ry Error 3 Repair In this project, the dreaded “Battery Error 3” charging error was tackled on an old Roomba 521 vacuum robot. This error can be found in older models of Roomba robots and is often referred to as the “Red Ring of Death” for robot vacuums. I'm a Service Name Use this area to describe one of your services. You can change the title to the service you provide and use this text area to describe your service. I'm a Service Name Use this area to describe one of your services. You can change the title to the service you provide and use this text area to describe your service. I'm a Service Name Use this area to describe one of your services. You can change the title to the service you provide and use this text area to describe your service. In this project, the dreaded “Battery Error 3” charging error was tackled on an old Roomba 521 vacuum robot. This error can be found in older models of Roomba robots and is often referred to as the “Red Ring of Death” for robot vacuums. Symptoms The vocal message “Charging Error 3” when attempting to charge the robot through the docking station or by direct connection. A red ring appears when attempting to charge the device. The battery does not recharge regardless of how long plugged in. The battery re-learn feature cancels, reporting the error. Quick Fix’s There are many reasons why an error may occur when charging your robot, from a bad battery, or a loose connection, all the way to a bad motherboard. Below are some initial tips to attempt to remedy the issue. Wipe clean the connections on the charging dock Plug the charger directly into the robot Clean the connections to the battery itself Try another battery (if one is spare) Try a battery reset (Hold down “Dock” and “Spot” buttons for 10-20 seconds and let go - the robot should make a tone) which will let the robot re-learn the battery's charging and running characteristics. The Investiga tion 1 - Overview To initiate the repair, we first need to strip down the robot to expose the error, as the basic checks show the fault lies within the robot. Below is a picture of the top face of the robot in question. More Coming Soon

  • ERTE Prototype | Carmalan Robotics

    ERTE Modular Educational Robot This project aims to create a modular educational robotics kit that teaches robotics through practice and can be expanded on skill level. Be low is the story of developing the initial prototype, ERTE-0. I'm a Service Name Use this area to describe one of your services. You can change the title to the service you provide and use this text area to describe your service. I'm a Service Name Use this area to describe one of your services. You can change the title to the service you provide and use this text area to describe your service. I'm a Service Name Use this area to describe one of your services. You can change the title to the service you provide and use this text area to describe your service. This project aims to create a modular educational robotics kit that teaches robotics through practice and can be expanded on skill level. Be low is the story of my work developing the initial prototype, ERTE-0. Introduction Robotics is a field that I have always been obsessed with. However, I have found it hard to get into. In my experience, affordable robotics kits, such as of the solder-yourself variety, tend to be fairly simplistic and restrictive. For example, If you want a line-follow robot, then you make a robot specific to that function, just as you would buy a particular kit if you wanted a robot to follow the light or navigate a room. Considering that these kits tend to be of low-quality build (lack of wheels, sticky tape instead of brackets and screws, etc....), these robots are only suitable for educational / gimmick use only. The aim of this project is to create an easy-to-follow educational kit, where detailed instructions enable you to start with a basic robot and expand the system with more complicated functionality as you learn more advanced concepts. To start, i believe it be essential to produce a suitable p[latofrm, with wheels, battery case, brackets, and designed to be taken apart many times and expanded. With this suitable platform, a proper foundation for a modular robot will be offered. Goals Below are the main goals listed: Comprised of generic off-the-shelf components Custom PCB's with simple layouts, able to be replicated with prototyping boards PCB's to be well labeled, including component vales, with easily distinguishable traces Each distinct area (Sensors, Control, Motor Driving...) is to be separate and swappable modules Expansion considerations built-in Cross module compatibility A rigid body designed to be repeatedly taken apart to enable modifications Fully detailed instructions with the design well explained One robot - various possible functions and module combinations The Investiga tion 1 - Overview To initiate the repair, we first need to strip down the robot to expose the error, as the basic checks show the fault lies within the robot. Below is a picture of the top face of the robot in question. More Coming Soon

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